Prosecutors said Jade Sanders and Lamont Thomas, who lived a vegan lifestyle and ate no animal products, were living in the city's Buckhead neighborhood when Jade gave birth to their son, Crown Shakur.
In April 2004, authorities said Crown died at 6 weeks old, emaciated and weighing less than four pounds.
Authorities said the child died of bronchopneumonia due to extreme malnourishment or starvation. Police said his diet consisted only of soy milk and apple juice.
The high court's unanimous opinion was announced Monday morning.